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Autism and SMS

Individuals with SMS present with a distinct pattern of mild to moderate intellectual disability, delayed speech and language skills, distinctive craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, behavioral disturbances, and, almost uniformly, significant sleep disturbances1. Genetic alterations in RAI1 have also been linked to a number of neurodevelopmental disorders including Autism2,3. In fact, 90% of SMS patients meet diagnostic criteria for Autism at one point in their lives4,5.

The enrichment of RAl1 variants is suggestive of prevalence of sleep disturbances in Autism similar to that observed in SMS which could be driven via the same molecular pathways.

Further studies will help discern the role of RAl1 variants in Autism and particularly in patients with sleep disturbances.

If you know someone with a neurodevelopmental disorder who has experienced sleep-wake disturbances we can help in coordinating for an RAI1 genetic test.

Do you or your child have a neurodevelopmental disorder that you are hoping to learn more about? If you are interested in being tested for Smith-Magenis Syndrome or if you already have a clinical diagnosis of Smith-Magenis Syndrome and are interested in genetic testing, your provider may request a genetic test using either of the links listed below which will take them to the specific test relevant for SMS. This test consists of a simple cheek swab, which can be done at home, and is then mailed to a lab for analysis.

(1) Polymeropoulos, C.M., Brooks, J., Czeisler, E.L. et al. Tasimelteon safely and effectively improves sleep in Smith-Magenis syndrome: a double-blind randomized trial followed by an open-label extension. Genet Med 23, 2426-2432 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01282-y (2) https://www.sfari.org/funded-project/neurobiology-of-rai1-a-critical-gene-for-syndromic-autism-spectrum-disorders/ (3) Slager RE, Newton TL, Vlangos CN, Finucane B, Elsea SH. Mutations in RAI1 associated with Smith–Magenis syndrome. Nat Genet. 2003;33:466–8. (4) Huang W-H, Wang DC, Allen WE, et al. Early adolescent RAI1 reactivation reverses transcriptional and social interaction deficits in a mouse model of Smith-Magenis Syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(42): 10744-10749. Doi:10.1073/pnas.1806796115. (5) G Laje, et al., Autism spectrum features in Smith-Magenis syndrome. Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 154C, 456–462 (2010).

To find out more about potential treatment options for nighttime sleep disturbances in SMS or arrange for a genetic test
please sign up for a health educator to reach out to you or call 833.433.4331